In the shadow of Chernobyl, a pack of dogs unlike any other roam the desert

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In 1986, reactor number four at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine suffered a catastrophic meltdown. An onslaught of radioactive atoms burst from the wreckage and scattered across Europe, even reaching North America. In the area surrounding the power plant, an ecological disaster began to unfold. The pines have collapsed. Insect populations have plummeted. Polluted soils have withered crops.

In the hours following the collapse, residents of nearby neighborhoods were forced to get up and leave without notice while liquidators – military and other civilians – stepped in to “clean up” the radioactive mess. Pets were not allowed to travel with evacuees and had to be left behind. A directive from the Ukrainian Interior Ministry instructed military personnel to hunt down and execute pets, including the many dogs in the region inside the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

But some of the pets escaped capture and murder, settling in the CEZ. The liquidators often fed and housed the lost, and the populations persevered.

Today, the doomed Chernobyl reactor is buried in a massive concrete structure known as the sarcophagus, but the effects of its meltdown linger. The radioactive atoms – radionuclides – released within 10 days of the disaster still permeate the soil, the water and, yes, the animals that call the CEZ home, including Chernobyl’s dogs.

This unfortunate fate for dogs has a somewhat dark silver lining. By studying the DNA of these dogs, researchers could better understand how chronic radiation exposure leaves lasting effects on physiology and health.

In a new study, published in the journal Science Advances on March 3, researchers set out to decode the genetics of the canine population around Chernobyl, characterizing the genes of 302 free-roaming dogs that now inhabit the power plant and surrounding region. This is the first time that a large mammal from the CEZ has been studied in this way.

“They offer a chance to see how the harsh environment, which includes exposure to high and low levels of radiation, can affect the DNA of animals that have lived and raised for 15 generations in this region,” said Elaine Ostrander, a geneticist at the National Institutes of Health’s Human Genome Research Institute and author of the study.

By studying tiny changes in DNA known as SNPs, the team was able to measure genetic similarity in these populations. By comparing Chernobyl dogs to purebred dogs from elsewhere in Europe, the team revealed that a group of dogs living near the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, occupying Pripyat and the nearby train station, are a genetically distinct family. and closed.

This group differed, genetically, from dogs living just 10 miles away in the town of Chernobyl, who appear to have migrated more and bred with local dogs.

“This paves the way for future studies aimed at finding mutations in key genes resulting from the radioactive environment,” Ostrander said.

Importantly, the study doesn’t show that the radiation in the disaster area itself caused changes or mutations in the dogs’ DNA. Inbreeding and isolation can cause the kind of changes the team found in DNA.

“To find out if there were de novo mutations caused by radiation, the researchers would have had to do a whole genome sequencing of the dogs and see if there were any unique variants in that population,” said Claire Wade, geneticist. animal and computational biologist at the University of Sydney not associated with the study.

A de novo mutation is a mutation that has not been genetically transmitted. By looking at an entire genome – all of an organism’s DNA – rather than just SNPs, researchers can tease out more information, uncover mutations in genes that may have physiological effects. That’s exactly what the Chernobyl canine team plans to do.

With more than 400 DNA samples now collected, researchers may begin to wonder how DNA variation in these Chernobyl populations might help dogs live in a highly radioactive environment. Perhaps, for example, certain genes have been turned on or off that confer a survival advantage in dogs closer to the plant. Comparing whole genome sequences will help uncover these relationships.

So far, a full DNA sequence has been recovered for more than half of the 400 samples, noted Tim Mousseau, a biologist at the University of South Carolina who has long studied organisms around Chernobyl after the disaster. and author of the article.

A myth persists that life returned and flourished in Chernobyl after the disaster, but this is not necessarily the case. Although dogs are the first large mammal to be studied at Chernobyl, previous research has explored the effects of radiation on many different organisms in the region, from insects to birds.

For example, a 1997 paper showed that barn swallows exposed to radiation around Chernobyl had higher de novo mutations and were more likely to be partially albino, and Mousseau’s studies showed that species abundance dropped in contaminated areas.

Other studies hint at the kind of revelations that might come from studying organisms in the CEZ. In 2020, scientists discovered a species of fungus with a high content of melanin, a pigment capable of absorbing radiation and transforming it into energy. The production of high levels of melanin could provide a sort of protective sunscreen or “shield” for astronauts, where the threat of radiation is always present.

Will the Chernobyl dog genomes provide a similar level of information? This is an open question that the team is eager to answer.

“We really have what it takes to answer questions about the role of environment on survival in that environment,” Mousseau said.

Create a Facebook account 2022
Anyone can Create a new Facebook account. if you want Create a Facebook account
or configure it, see this guide. Here you will find step-by-step
instructions on how to set up a Facebook account in different ways, how
to get a Facebook page for your business.

Advantages of creating a Facebook account
no secret that Facebook is one of the biggest social media platforms
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Share photos, videos and moments.

Find local events.

Perfect game collection to spend your free time.

Watch live and important videos.

Buying and selling from within the Facebook app.

Good notification system for all updates.
Create a new Facebook account without a phone number
naturally, How to create a Facebook account
Very simple, almost all users know, simple and not at all
complicated, but one of the requirements to create your personal
Facebook account is that you have a phone number to confirm it. account
when you create it, but to the delight of some users, you can
Create Facebook account without a phone number easily through your android phone.
How to Create a New Facebook Account Without a Phone Number
It is a social and business website for some users, but when you have a
personal Facebook account and you have some business and you want
customers to connect with you on Facebook, you should not provide your
personal account to protect privacy and not . frequently throughout the
day, so you will have to
Create a Facebook account another to
receive your orders. And some people want another Facebook account just
to hang out with friends. Let’s learn together
How to Create a Facebook Account Without a Phone Number in the next paragraph.
How to Create a New Facebook Account Without a Phone Number
necessary process Create a Facebook account
Not tied to a phone number You have an Android phone and it just needs
to be an Android phone. Then follow these steps to create an account on
your phone without the help of a laptop:

Access the Google Play Store.

Find Facebook Lite Facebook.

Then download and install the app on your phone.

Open the app and choose the language that suits you best.

Click Create New Account.

Then fill in your first and last name.

When you reach the phone number step, you will find the registration via email at the bottom of the screen.

Click to register via email.

Type your e-mail.

Then click next and wait for the activation code to be sent to your email.

Then add the activation code.

Fill in the registration information.
The second way to create a new Facebook account without a phone number
There are many ways To create a Facebook account
No need for a phone number to sign up for an account. One of the ways
is to use a number that is different from your personal number, like
using a fake number from the Internet, and you can find many
applications in the Google Play Store that provide this service, and it
is a service that creates Americans, for example, or numbers that Brits
must activate social media accounts like WhatsApp, Facebook, Instagram
and other social media sites. With these apps you can create an account
on any app and get a fake number with which you can easily create an
account on the Facebook social networking platform and associate the
fake phone number with that account.

imperfections Create a new Facebook account without a phone number
Activating a Facebook account with a fake number has disadvantages and
harms, mainly losing your account in an application that provides a
service to create fake numbers. You are from Facebook on your phone
number, in this case you cannot receive the code because you do not have
a dummy account. Or because Facebook has received many complaints
about your personal Facebook account and wants to verify the credibility
of the account holder by sending a code on your phone or on the number
you linked to the account, here in this case we are talking about fake

Configure your Facebook profile
If you are new to this social networking platform then… Create a Facebook profile It can be stressful for you. So here are some tips to help you get started with Facebook:

a Profile Photo – You should add your photo first so your friends and
acquaintances can easily identify you and send you friend requests.

SOME FRIENDS – Start looking for your friends and send them friend
requests, but make sure not to overdo it, as this can block your FB
account or get Facebook arrested.

Privacy settings – Create a new Facebook account
one thing and managing it is another; Understand your privacy settings
before posting too much personal information on Facebook. It’s
important to know how you share your personal information with others
and with the Facebook app so you don’t run into privacy issues.

tip – If you are using a Facebook account on a public network, never
share your password with anyone. Also, do not enter the wrong password
multiple times as this will deactivate your Facebook account.

Are you having trouble logging into your Facebook account?
If you are unable to log in to your Facebook account, you can recover it by following these steps:

Try to recover your Facebook account
If you find that your password is invalid or missing, try resetting it.
you’re having problems with your email, username or phone number, try
logging into your account with an alternate email or phone number.

you signed up for a Facebook account via email, you’ll need to contact
your email service provider to access your Facebook account email to
sign in.

Reasons why Facebook account fails
will only see a message that your account is disabled when you try to
log in. If you don’t see this message, you have another problem logging
in. Your Facebook account can be disabled for many reasons. some

Posting content that doesn’t follow Facebook’s terms.

Using a fake name.

Personify someone.

Continue to engage in behavior that isn’t allowed on Facebook and that violates our Community Guidelines.

Contact others for promotional, advertising, abusive or harassing purposes.
How to create a new Facebook account
if you want it now Create a new Facebook account Using your phone number instead of your email address, you need to follow these steps:

Go to and click Create New Account.

Enter your telephone number and other personal information requested in the “Registration” form; Click “Login” when finished.

the verification code you received on your mobile number and click
Continue. That’s all you need to do to set up a new Facebook account
with your phone number.

distance Create a Facebook account newYou
can manage your account settings and keep it private or open to the
public. For further use, just enter your email address/phone number and
password when creating your account to login your Facebook account.

How to Create a New Facebook Account on Your Computer
Here we will learn how to create a new Facebook gmail account on computer, and here are the necessary steps:

Turn on the computer and launch the browser.

Click Create New Account.

After that, a window will appear where you need to enter:

Your first and middle name.

Your gmail (which we created earlier).

Account password.

After completing these steps, you have to click on Create a Facebook account.

After that, a window will appear asking you to confirm the email as follows:

you have to do is go to your email inbox and you will find a message
from Facebook, you have two options, click on the blue confirmation
option or copy the confirmation code and add it to the previous window.

Facebook account verification without number

After entering the code, click Confirm below.

so you did Create a new Facebook account on Gmail.
Create a Facebook account on your phone
When using your phone to create a new Facebook Gmail account, you must first Download the Facebook app from Google Play
If you are using a phone with limited specs, not enough storage space
or don’t want to consume your internet package quickly. Facebook Lite
is the right app. Now, let’s start explaining:

Open the Facebook app.

Click Create a new account and grant it to Facebook Permissions to complete account creation.

In the next window, click on the Next option to start creating a new email account on your phone.

Enter your name and tap Next, select your date of birth by month, day and year and tap Next again to go to the next step.

Select your gender and click Next.

the next step you will be asked to enter a phone number but we are
creating a new facebook gmail account without phone number or email so
you should choose email login option. Then enter your email and click

that, you must enter your password, then a window will appear to
confirm the registration process, just click on the “Register” option.

In the Save Login Information window, you can save the information in an application Facebook So that you can access your account easily next time.

After that you will be ready Create a new Facebook account.


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